Soil Temperature

This page contains four extracts with similar info presented different ways.

Also, go here for a long list of plants with min/optimum/max temps.


Min/Opt/Max temps from IFAS

MINIMUM Soil Temperature for Germination

  • 32° – Endive, Lettuce, Onion, Parsnip, and Spinach
  • 40° – Beet, Broccoli, Cabbage, Carrot, Cauliflower, Parsley, Pea, Radish, Swiss Chard, and Celery
  • 50° – Asparagus, Sweet Corn, Tomato, and Turnip
  • 60° – Lima bean, Snap Bean, Cucumber, Okra, and Pepper
  • 65° – Eggplant, Muskmelon, Pumpkin, Squash, and Watermelon

OPTIMUM Soil Temperature for Germination

  • 70° – Celery, Parsnip, and Spinach
  • 75° – Asparagus, Endive, Lettuce, and Pea
  • 80° – Lima Bean, Carrot, Cauliflower, Onion, Radish, Tomato, Turnip
  • 85° – Snap Bean, Beet, Broccoli, Cabbage, Eggplant, Parsley, Pepper, Sweet Corn, and Swiss Chard
  • 95° – Cucumber, Muskmelon, Okra, Pumpkin, Squash, and Watermelon.

MAXIMUM Soil Temperature for Germination

  • 75° – Celery, Endive, Lettuce, and Spinach
  • 85° – Lima Beans, Parsnip, and Pea
  • 95° – Asparagus, Snap Bean, Beet, Broccoli, Cabbage, Carrot, Cauliflower, Eggplant, Onion, Parsley, Pepper, Radish, Swiss Chard, and Tomato
  • 106° – Cucumber, Muskmelon, Okra, Pumpkin, Squash, Sweet Corn, Turnip, and Watermelon

The location of the black dot indicates the optimum germination temperatures (according to the University of California at Davis). The green dot is the “realistic” soil temperatures that Dr. Parsons recommends to ensure good germination in the garden. For practical purposes, you can start planting as soon as the soil reaches this temperature.


Below from here with days to germinate at optimum temps.

CropMinOptimumMax
Asparagus5060-8595
Bean, lima6075-8585
Bean, snap6075-8595
Beet4060-8595
Broccoli4060-8595
Brussels sprouts4060-8595
Cabbage4060-8595
Carrot4065-8595
Cauliflower4065-8595
Celery4060-7095
Chinese cabbage4060-8595
Collards4060-8595
Corn5065-95105
Cucumber6065-95105
Eggplant6075-8595
Endive/Escarole3560-7585
Garlic3565-8595
Kale4060-8595
Kohlrabi4060-95105
Leeks3565-8595
Lettuce3560-7585
Muskmelon6075-95105
Mustard3560-7585
Okra6085-95105
Onion3565-8595
Parsley4065-8595
Parsnip3565-7585
Pea4065-7585
Pepper6065-7595
Pumpkin6085-95105
Radicchio3560-7585
Radish4065-8595
Spinach3565-7575
Squash6085-95105
Swiss chard4065-8595
Tomato5065-8595
Turnip4060-95105
Watermelon6070-95105

Below from here.

Real-time soil temperature national map – https://www.agweb.com/weather/soil-temperatures

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