Below is an extract from here:
Using Wood Ash on Soil
Wood ash can play a useful role in correcting overly acidic soil. Most vegetables need a pH of 6.5 to 7.0, so if your soil’s below 6.5 sprinkle wood ash over the surface then rake or fork it in. Test your soil using an inexpensive test kit if you don’t already know its pH. Wood ash is particularly useful if you use lots of cattle manure in your garden, as this type of manure is very acidic.
Wood ash is approximately half as effective as lime in neutralizing acid. As a general rule, apply about two ounces of ash to every square yard (50-70g per square meter). Do this on a still day in winter and wear gloves to protect your hands.
Using Wood Ash around Plants
Use the alkalinity of wood ash to improve soil for brassicas such as cabbage and Brussels sprouts. This is a great way to prevent club root, a common disease when soil’s too acidic. Apply it the winter before planting, or as a side dressing around actively growing plants.