Fall Germination vs Soil Temps

The dates in the table below were produced by a spreadsheet calculator from Johnny’s Seeds web site. This calculator determines planting dates for crops to be planted outside, without additional protection, for fall harvest.  All are crops that are frost-tolerant and taste great in cooler weather.

The calculator uses this formula:
Days to Maturity (they used varieties recommended for fall/winter)
+ Average Harvest Period
+ Fall Factor (takes into account the slowing of growth that results from cool weather and short days in fall, amounting to about 2 weeks)
= Days to Count Back from First Frost Date

The Optimum and Maximum Temperatures came from the page at this site that cites the data sources.

Based on the average first frost date of 11/30/2019   
CropPlant NLT **Opt Soil TempMax Soil Temp
Brussels Sprouts (TP)***8/2/2019  
Cabbage, storage (TP)8/7/20198595
Leeks (TP)8/7/20197595
Cabbage, fresh eating (TP)9/1/20198595
Carrots (DS)9/5/20198095
Broccoli (TP)9/7/20198595
Cauliflower (TP)9/8/20198095
Onions (DS)9/11/20198095
Beets (DS)9/18/20198595
Greens, Asian, full size (DS)9/23/2019  
Lettuce, heads (DS)9/23/201975 
Cabbage, Chinese (TP)9/24/20198595
Radish, Daikon (DS)9/26/2019 85
Swiss chard, bunching (DS)9/27/20198595
Turnip, purple top (DS)9/27/2019  
Lettuce, baby (DS)10/3/20197585
Spinach (DS)10/7/20197075
Turnips, salad (DS)10/8/2019  
Radish, round (DS)10/25/20198095

** The date calculated is the date to plant outdoors; crops that should be direct-sown are marked DS. Those marked TP should be set out as transplants on the date shown, so seeds should be started 4 weeks before the planting date.
*** Brussels sprouts should mature after frost, so no additional time is added for harvest period or fall factor.

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